Polygonatum biflorum

Family:RUSCACEAE
Species:Polygonatum biflorum (Walter)Elliott
Common Name:SMOOTH SOLOMON'S SEAL
Plant Notes:**
Status:Native, FACU (NWPL)
Specimen: View specimen details in the USF Herbarium Specimen Database

** Not applicable or data not available.

Classification

FamilyRUSCACEAE
Genus Polygonatum
Species Polygonatum biflorum (Walter)Elliott - SMOOTH SOLOMON'S SEAL

Citation

Citation POLYGONATUM BIFLORUM (Walter) Elliott, Sketch Bot. S. Carolina 1: 393. 1817.
Basionym: Convallaria biflora Walter 1788.
Type: SOUTH CAROLINA: Without data, Walter s.n. (neotype: BM). Neotypified by R. P. Ownbey, Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 31: 394. 1944; D. B. Ward, J. Bot. Res. Inst. Texas 1: 412-413. 2007.

** Not applicable or data not available.

Source

CountyHerbariaLiterature Citation (If Applicable)
Alachua FLAS  
Calhoun USF  
Clay USF  
Columbia FLAS  
Escambia UWFP  
Gadsden FLAS  
Hernando USF  
Jackson USF  
Jefferson USF  
Lake USF  
Leon USF  
Liberty FLAS  
Marion US-Lit Lit-US: R. P. Ownbey, Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 31: 398. 1944.
Walton USF  
Washington FLAS  

Synonyms

– Denotes synonyms that are applicable to the state. Show these synonyms only

SynonymFull CitationBasionymType
Convallaria angustifolia Convallaria angustifolia Sprengel, Syst. Veg. 2: 96. 1825, nom. illegit.BASIONYM: Polygonatum angustifolium Pursh 1814, nom. illegit.; Convallaria biflora Walter 1788. 
Convallaria biflora Convallaria biflora Walter, Fl. Carol. 122. 1788. TYPE: SOUTH CAROLINA: Without data, Walter s.n. (neotype: BM). Neotypified by R. P. Ownbey, Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 31: 394. 1944; D. B. Ward, J. Bot. Res. Inst. Texas 1: 412-413. 2007.
Polygonatum angustifolium Polygonatum angustifolium Pursh, Fl. Amer. Sept. 234. 1814, nom. illegit.BASIONYM: Convallaria biflora Walter 1788. 
Polygonatum biflorum var. hebetifolium Polygonatum biflorum (Walter) Elliott, var. hebetifolium R. R. Gates, Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 44: 121, pl. 5. 1917. TYPE: NORTH CAROLINA: Without data, Herb. Chapman s.n. (holotype: MO).
Polygonatum hebetifolium Polygonatum hebetifolium (R. R. Gates) Bush, Amer. Midl. Naturalist 10: 391. 1927.BASIONYM: Polygonatum biflorum (Walter) Elliott, var. hebetifolium R. R. Gates 1917. 
Polygonatum multiflorum var. biflorum Polygonatum multiflorum (Linnaeus) Allioni, var. biflorum (Walter) A. W. Wood, Class-Book Bot. 396. 1845.BASIONYM: Convallaria biflora Walter 1788. 
Salomonia biflora Salomonia biflora (Walter) Farwell, Annual Rep. Comm. Barks & Boulev. Detroit 11: 53. 1900.BASIONYM: Convallaria biflora Walter 1788. 
Convallaria canaliculata Convallaria canaliculata Muhlenberg ex Willdenow, Hort. Berol. t. 45. 1804.  
Convallaria commutata Convallaria commutata Schultes & Schultes f., in Roemer & Schultes, Syst. Veg. 7: 1671. 1830.  
Convallaria parviflora Convallaria parviflora Poiret, in Lamarck, Encycl., Suppl. 4: 29. 1816.  
Polygonatum biflorum forma ramosum Polygonatum biflorum (Walter) Elliott, forma ramosum (McGivney) Fernald, Rhodora 46: 12. 1944.BASIONYM: Polygonatum commutatum (Schultes & Schultes f.) A. Dietrich, forma ramosum McGivney 1925. 
Polygonatum biflorum subvar. ellipsoidale Polygonatum biflorum (Walter) Elliott, subvar. ellipsoidale Farwell, Amer. Midl. Naturalist 11: 78. 1928. TYPE: MICHIGAN: Oakland Co.: Rochester, 28 Jun 1917, Farwell 4508½ (lectotype: BLH; isolectotype: MICH). Lectotypified by Ownbey, Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 31: 407. 1944.
Polygonatum biflorum var. commutatum Polygonatum biflorum (Walter) Elliott, var. commutatum (Schultes & Schultes f.) Morong, Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 20: 480. 1893.BASIONYM: Convallaria commutata Schultes & Schultes f. 1830. 
Polygonatum biflorum var. giganteum Polygonatum biflorum (Walter) Elliott, var. giganteum (A. Dietrich) A. W. Wood, Amer. Bot. Fl. 346. 1870.BASIONYM: Polygonatum giganteum A. Dietrich 1835. 
Polygonatum biflorum var. ovatum Polygonatum biflorum (Walter) Elliott, var. ovatum Farwell, Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 42: 255, pl. 16(A). 1915. TYPE: MICHIGAN: Wayne Co.: Belle Isle, Detroit River, Jun 1893, Farwell 1150a (lectotype: BLH). Lectotypified by Bush, Amer. Midl. Naturalist 10: 398. 1927.
Polygonatum biflorum var. virginicum Polygonatum biflorum (Walter) Elliott, var. virginicum (Greene) Farwell, Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 42: 254. 1915.BASIONYM: Polygonatum virginicum Greene 1906. 
Polygonatum canaliculatum Polygonatum canaliculatum (Muhlenberg ex Willdenow) Pursh, Fl. Amer. Sept. 234. 1814.BASIONYM: Convallaria canaliculata Muhlenberg ex Willdenow 1809. 
Polygonatum canaliculatum forma ramosum Polygonatum canaliculatum (Muhlenberg ex Willdenow) Pursh, forma ramosum (McGivney) Clute, Amer. Bot. (Binghampton) 49: 73. 1943.BASIONYM: Polygonatum commutatum (Schultes & Schultes f.) A. Dietrich, forma ramosum McGivney 1925. 
Polygonatum canaliculatum var. ellipticum Polygonatum canaliculatum (Muhlenberg ex Willdenow) Pursh, var. ellipticum (Farwell) Farwell, Amer. Midl. Naturalist 11: 78. 1928.BASIONYM: Polygonatum ellipticum Farwell 1915. 
Polygonatum canaliculatum var. giganteum Polygonatum canaliculatum (Muhlenberg ex Willdenow) Pursh, var. giganteum (A. Dietrich) Miquel, Ann. Mus. Bot. Lugduno-Batavi 3: 148. 1867.BASIONYM: Polygonatum giganteum A. Dietrich 1835. 
Polygonatum canaliculatum var. oblongifolium Polygonatum canaliculatum (Muhlenberg ex Willdenow) Pursh, var. oblongifolium Farwell, Annual Rep. Michigan Acad. Sci. 22: 181. 1921. TYPE: MICHIGAN: Oakland Co.: Parkedale Farm, Jun 1914, Farwell 3682 (holotype: BLH).
Polygonatum canaliculatum var. ovatum Polygonatum canaliculatum (Muhlenberg ex Willdenow) Pursh, var. ovatum (Farwell) E. J. Palmer & Steyermark, Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 22: 503. 1935.BASIONYM: Polygonatum biflorum (Walter) Elliott, var. ovatum Farwell 1915. 
Polygonatum commutatum Polygonatum commutatum (Schultes & Schultes f.) A. Dietrich, in Otto & A. Dietrich, Allg. Gartenzeitung 3: 223. 1835.BASIONYM: Convallaria commutata Schultes & Schultes f. 1830. 
Polygonatum commutatum forma ramosum Polygonatum commutatum (Schultes & Schultes f.) A. Dietrich, forma ramosum McGivney, Amer. Midl. Naturalist 9: 664. 1925. TYPE: INDIANA: St. Joseph Co.: Hillside 1 mi. S of the university, Notre Dame, 14 Jul 1925, McGivney 22003 (holotype: NDG).
Polygonatum commutatum var. lineamentosum Polygonatum commutatum (Schultes & Schultes f.) A. Dietrich, var. lineamentosum Lunell, Amer. Midl. Naturalist 5: 94. 1917. TYPE: NORTH DAKOTA:
Polygonatum commutatum var. ovatum Polygonatum commutatum (Schultes & Schultes f.) A. Dietrich, var. ovatum (Farwell) R. R. Gates, Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 44: 124. 1917.BASIONYM: Polygonatum biflorum (Walter) Elliott, var. ovatum Farwell 1915. 
Polygonatum commutatum var. virginicum Polygonatum commutatum (Schultes & Schultes f.) A. Dietrich, var. virginicum (Greene) R. R. Gates, Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 44: 123. 1917.BASIONYM: Polygonatum virginicum Greene 1906. 
Polygonatum ellipticum Polygonatum ellipticum Farwell, Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 42: 255, pl. 16(B). 1915. TYPE: MICHIGAN: Oakland Co.: Rochester, 11 Jun 1914, Farwell 3673 (holotype: BLH).
Polygonatum giganteum Polygonatum giganteum A. Dietrich, in Otto & A. Dietrich, Allg. Gartenzeitung 3: 222. 1835.  
Polygonatum latifolium var. commutatum Polygonatum latifolium (Jacquin) Desfontaines, var. commutatum (Schultes & Schultes f.) Baker, J. Linn. Soc., Bot. 14: 555. 1875.BASIONYM: Convallaria commutata Schultes & Schultes f. 1830. 
Polygonatum multiflorum var. canaliculatum Polygonatum multiflorum (Linnaeus) Allioni, var. canaliculatum (Muhlenberg ex Willdenow) A. W. Wood, Class-Book Bot. 396. 1845.BASIONYM: Convallaria canaliculata Muhlenberg ex Willdenow 1809. 
Polygonatum multiflorum var. giganteum Polygonatum multiflorum (Linnaeus) Allioni, var. giganteum (A. Dietrich) A. W. Wood, Class-Book Bot., ed. 1861. 714. 1861.BASIONYM: Polygonatum giganteum A. Dietrich 1835. 
Polygonatum ovatum Polygonatum ovatum (Farwell) Bush, Amer. Midl. Naturalist 10: 397. 1927.BASIONYM: Polygonatum biflorum (Walter) Elliott, var. ovatum Farwell 1915. 
Polygonatum parviflorum Polygonatum parviflorum (Poiret) A. Dietrich, in Otto & A. Dietrich, Allg. Gartenzeitung 3: 222. 1835.BASIONYM: Convallaria parviflora Poiret 1816. 
Polygonatum virginicum Polygonatum virginicum Greene, Leafl. Bot. Observ. Crit. 1: 181. 1906. TYPE: VIRGINIA: Smyth Co.: Bluffs along Middle Fork of the Holston River near Marion, 22 May 1892, Small s.n. (holotype: US).
Salomonia commutata Salomonia commutata (Schultes & Schultes f.) Farwell, Annual Rep. Comm. Parks & Boulev. Detroit 11: 53. 1900.BASIONYM: Convallaria commutata Schultes & Schultes f. 1830.