Xanthium strumarium

Family:ASTERACEAE
Species:Xanthium strumarium L.
Common Name:COCKLEBURR
Plant Notes:**
Status:Not Native, FAC (NWI)
Specimen: View specimen details in the USF Herbarium Specimen Database

** Not applicable or data not available.

Classification

FamilyASTERACEAE
Genus Xanthium
Species Xanthium strumarium L. - COCKLEBURR

Citation

Citation XANTHIUM STRUMARIUM Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 987. 1753.
Basionym: **
Type: Without data (lectotype: LINN 1113.1). Lectotypified by M. L. Green, Prop. Brit. Bot. 188. 1929.

** Not applicable or data not available.

Source

CountyHerbariaLiterature Citation (If Applicable)
Alachua FLAS  
Brevard USF  
Calhoun USF  
DeSoto USF  
Duval FLAS  
Escambia USF  
Franklin FSU  
Gadsden FLAS  
Gilchrist USF  
Hamilton FLAS  
Highlands FLAS  
Hillsborough USF  
Holmes USF  
Jackson USF  
Jefferson FSU  
Leon FLAS  
Levy FLAS  
Liberty FSU  
Marion FLAS  
Miami-Dade USF  
Nassau FLAS  
Okaloosa USF  
Seminole FLAS  
St. Johns FTG  
Wakulla USF  

Synonyms

– Denotes synonyms that are applicable to the state. Show these synonyms only

SynonymFull CitationBasionymType
Xanthium americanum Xanthium americanum Walter, Fl. Carol. 231. 1788. TYPE: SOUTH CAROLINA:
Xanthium canadense Xanthium canadense Miller, Gard. Dict., ed. 8. 1768. TYPE: CANADA: Without data, Herb. Sloane 228(54): 1 (lectotype: BM). Lectotypified by Cronquist, in Cronquist et al., Intermountain Fl. 5: 65. 1994.
Xanthium glabratum Xanthium glabratum (de Candolle) Britton, Man. Fl. N. States 912. 1901, nom. illegit.BASIONYM: Xanthium macrocarpum de Candolle, var. glabratum de Candolle 1836; Xanthium americanum Walter 1788. 
Xanthium macrocarpum Xanthium macrocarpum de Candolle, var. glabratum de Candolle, Prodr. 5: 523. 1836.BASIONYM: Xanthium americanum Walter 1788. 
Xanthium pensylvanicum Xanthium pensylvanicum Wallroth, Beitr. Bot. 228, 236. 1844. TYPE: NORTH CAROLINA: Buncombe Co.: Asheville, s.d., Beyrich s.n. (holotype: HAL?).
Xanthium pensylvanicum var. glandulosum Xanthium pensylvanicum Wallroth, var. glandulosum Wallroth, Beitr. Bot. 236. 1844, nom. inadmiss.BASIONYM: Xanthium pensylvanicum Wallroth 1844. 
Xanthium pungens Xanthium pungens Wallroth, Beitr. Bot. 227, 231. 1844, nom. illegit.BASIONYM: Xanthium americanum Walter 1788. 
Xanthium strumarium var. canadense Xanthium strumarium Linnaeus, var. canadense (Miller) Torrey & A. Gray, Fl. N. Amer. 2: 294. 1842.BASIONYM: Xanthium canadense Miller 1768. 
Xanthium strumarium var. glabratum Xanthium strumarium Linnaeus, var. glabratum (de Candolle) Cronquist, Rhodora 47: 403. 1945.BASIONYM: Xanthium macrocarpum de Candolle, var. glabratum de Candolle 1836; Xanthium americanum Walter 1788. 
Xanthium vulgare Xanthium vulgare Lamarck, Fl. Franc. 2: 56. 1779, nom. illegit.BASIONYM: Xanthium strumarium Linnaeus 1753. 
Xanthium acerosum Xanthium acerosum Greene, Pittonia 4: 63. 1899. TYPE: NORTH DAKOTA: Cass Co.: Near Fargo, 4 Sep 1893, Greene s.n. (holotype: ?).
Xanthium acutilobum Xanthium acutilobum Millspaugh & Sherff, Publ. Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Bot. Ser. 4: 6. 1918. TYPE: TEXAS: Dallas Co.: Oak Cliff, 2 Sep, Reverchon s.n. (holotype: MO).
Xanthium acutum Xanthium acutum Greene, Pittoniia 4: 62. 1899. TYPE: CALIFORNIA: San Joaquin Co.: Near Stockton, 1888, Sanford s.n. (holotype: ?).
Xanthium affine Xanthium affine Greene, Pittonia 4: 60. 1899. TYPE: WASHINGTON: Klickitat Co.: Columbia River, s.d., Suksdorf 1584 (holotype: ?).
Xanthium albinum Xanthium albinum (Widder) H. Scholz & Sukopp, Verh. Bot. Vereins Prov. Brandenburg 98(c): 47. 1960.BASIONYM: Xanthium riparium Itzingsohn & Hertsch, var. albinum Widder 
Xanthium albinum subsp. riparium Xanthium albinum (Widder) H. Scholz & Sukopp, subsp. riparium (Celakowsky) Widder & Wagenitz, in Hegi, Ill. Fl. Mitt.-Eur., ed. 2. 6(3): 275. 1968.BASIONYM: Xanthium italicum Moretti, subsp. riparium Celakovsky 1871; Xanthium riparium Lasch 1856, non Itzingsohn & Hertsch 1854. 
Xanthium albinum subsp. ripicola Xanthium albinum (Widder) H. Scholz & Sukopp, subsp. ripicola (Holub) Dostál, Folia Mus. Rerum Nat. Bohemiae Occid. Bot. 21: 12. 1984, nom. illegit.BASIONYM: Xanthium ripicola Holub 1976; Xanthium italicum Moretti, subsp. riparium Celakovsky 1871; Xanthium riparium Lasch 1856, non Itzingsohn & Hertsch 1854. 
Xanthium arcuatum Xanthium arcuatum Millspaugh & Sherff, Publ. Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Bot. Ser. 4: 4, pl. 2, 5. 1918. TYPE: NEW YORK: Chemung Co.: River shores and low places, 11 Oct 1896, Lucy s.n. (holotype: F).
Xanthium brasilicum Xanthium brasilicum Vellozo, Fl. Flumin., Icon. 10: t. 23. 1831 ("1827"). TYPE: BRAZIL:
Xanthium bubalocarpon Xanthium bubalocarpon Bush, Rep. (Annual) Missouri Bot. Gard. 17: 123. 1906. TYPE: TEXAS: Dallas Co.: Without locality, 29 Sep 1900, Bush 1185 (holotype: MO).
Xanthium californicum Xanthium californicum Greene, Pittonia 4: 62. 1899. TYPE: CALIFORNIA:
Xanthium californicum var. oligacanthum Xanthium californicum Greene, var. oligacanthum (Piper) Widder, Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. Beih. 20: 113. 1923.BASIONYM: Xanthium oligacanthum Piper 1906. 
Xanthium calvum Xanthium calvum Millspaugh & Sherff, Publ. Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Bot. Ser. 4: 35, pl. 12. 1919. TYPE: CALIFORNIA: Santa Clara Co.: Vicinity of Palo Alto, s.d., Baker 1760 (holotype: UC).
Xanthium campestre Xanthium campestre Greene, Pittonia 4: 61. 1899. TYPE: CALIFORNIA: Butte Co.: Chico,
Xanthium canadense var. echinatum Xanthium canadense Miller, var. echinatum (Murray) A. Gray, Syn. Fl. N. Amer. 1(2): 252. 1884.BASIONYM: Xanthium echinatum Murray 1784. 
Xanthium cavanillesii Xanthium cavanillesii Schouw, Ann. Sci. Nat., Bot., ser. 3. 12: 357. 1849. TYPE: ARGENTINA: Buenos Aires, s.d., Didrichsen s.n. (holotype: C?).
Xanthium cenchroides Xanthium cenchroides Millspaugh & Sherff, Publ. Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Bot. Ser. 4: 30. 1919. TYPE: TEXAS: Ellis Co.: Near Ferris, s.d., Reverchon 2332 (holotype: MO).
Xanthium chasei Xanthium chasei Fernald, Rhodora 48: 66, t. 1013(1)-1014. 1946. TYPE: ILLINOIS: Peoria Co.: Illinois River near Peoria, 15 Sep 1945, Chase 8205 (holotype: GH).
Xanthium chinense Xanthium chinense Miller, Gard. Dict., ed. 8. 1768. TYPE: CHINA
Xanthium commune Xanthium commune Britton, Man. Fl. N. States 912. 1901. TYPE: NEW YORK: Essex Co.: Westport, shore of Lake Champlain, 15 Sep 1900, Britton & Britton s.n. (holotype: NY).
Xanthium commune var. wootonii Xanthium commune Britton, var. wootonii Cockerell, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash. 16: 9. 1903. TYPE: NEW MEXICO: San Miguel Co.: Las Vegas, 4 Oct 1901, Cockerell s.n. (holotype: ?; isotype: NY).
Xanthium crassifolium Xanthium crassifoilum Millspaugh & Sherff, Publ. Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Bot. Ser. 4: 4, pl. 4-5. 1918. TYPE: TEXAS: Bexar Co.: San Antonio, 15 Nov 1911, Mackenson 123 (holotype: F).
Xanthium cuneatum Xanthium cuneatum Moench, Suppl. Meth. 300. 1802, nom. illegit.BASIONYM: Xanthium orientale Linnaeus 1763. 
Xanthium curvescens Xanthium curvescens Millspaugh & Sherff, Publ. Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Bot. Ser. 4: 25, pl. 11. 1919. TYPE: VERMONT: Addison Co.: Orwell, s.d., Eggleston 1420 (holotype: GH).
Xanthium cylindricum Xanthium cylindricum Millspaugh & Sherff, Publ. Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Bot. Ser. 4: 4, pl. 3, 5. 1918. TYPE: NORTH CAROLINA: Henderson/Rutherford Cos.: Chimney Rock to Hendersonville, s.d., Small & Huger s.n. (holotype: F).
Xanthium discolor Xanthium discolor Wallroth, Beitr. Bot. 228, 232. 1844, nom. illegit.BASIONYM: Xanthium orientale Linnaeus 1763. 
Xanthium echinatum Xanthium echinatum Murray, Commentat. Soc. Regiae Sci. Gott. 6: 32. 1784. TYPE: NEW YORK: Without data, Wangenheim s.n. (holotype: ?).
Xanthium echinatum subsp. italicum Xanthium echinatum Murray, subsp. italicum (Moretti) Bolos & Vigo, Collect. Bot. (Barcelona) 17: 90. 1988.BASIONYM: Xanthium italicum Moretti 1822. 
Xanthium echinatum var. cavanillesii Xanthium echinatum Murray, var. cavanillesii (Schouw) Bolos & Vigo, Collect. Bot. (Barcelona) 17: 90. 1988.BASIONYM: Xanthium cavanillesii Schouw 1849. 
Xanthium echinatum var. italicum Xanthium echinatum Murray, var. italicum (Moretti) Bolos & Vigo, Collect. Bot. (Barcelona) 17: 90. 1988.BASIONYM: Xanthium italicum Moretti 1822. 
Xanthium glanduliferum Xanthium glanduliferum Greene, Pittonia 4: 61. 1899. TYPE: CANADA: British Columbia:
Xanthium globosum Xanthium globosum Shull, Bot. Gaz. 59: 482, f. 1, 4-7. 1915. TYPE: KANSAS: Douglas Co.: Lawrence,
Xanthium inflexum Xanthium inflexum Mackenzie & Bush, Rep. (Annual) Missouri Bot. Gard. 16: 106. 1905. TYPE: MISSOURI: Jackson Co.: Courtney, 5 Oct 1903, Bush 1916 (holotype: MO?; isotype: NY).
Xanthium italicum Xanthium italicum Moretti, Giorn. Fis., ser. 2. 5: 326. 1822. TYPE: ITALY:
Xanthium italicum subsp. riparium Xanthium italicum Moretti, subsp. riparium Celakovsky, Prodr. Fl. Böhmen 186. 1871.BASIONYM: Xanthium riparium Lasch 1856, non Itzingsohn & Hertsch 1854. 
Xanthium japonicum Xanthium japonicum Widder, Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. Beih. 20: 31, pl. 1(5). 1923. TYPE: JAPAN:
Xanthium leptocarpum Xanthium leptocarpum Millspaugh & Sherff, Publ. Field Mus. Natw. Hist., Bot. Ser. 4: 3, pl. 1, 5. 1918. TYPE: VERMONT: Chittenden Co.: Burlington, 12 Sep 1896, Jones s.n. (holotype: F).
Xanthium longirostre Xanthium longirostre Wallroth, Beitr. Bot. 228, 237. 1844.  
Xanthium macounii Xanthium macounii Britton, Man. Fl. N. States 913. 1901. TYPE: CANADA: Manitoba: Goose Island, Lake Winnipeg, 16 Aug 1884, Macoun s.n. (holotype: DAO).
Xanthium macrocarpum Xanthium macrocarpum de Candolle, in de Candolle & Lamarck, Fl. Franc. 6: 356. 1815, nom. illegit.BASIONYM: Xanthium orientale Linnaeus 1763. 
Xanthium macrocarpum subsp. italicum Xanthium macrocarpum de Candolle, subsp. italicum (Moretti) Nyman, Consp. Fl. Eur. 475. 1879.BASIONYM: Xanthium italicum Moretti 1822. 
Xanthium maculatum Xanthium maculatum Rafinesque, Amer. J. Sci. Arts 1: 152. 1818. TYPE: NEW YORK:
Xanthium natalense Xanthium natalense Widder, Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 41: 274. 1937. TYPE: SOUTH AFRICA:
Xanthium occidentale Xanthium occidentale Bertoloni, Lucubr. Re Herb. 38. 1822. TYPE: DOMINICAN REPUBLIC:
Xanthium oligacanthum Xanthium oligacanthum Piper, Contr. U.S. Natl. Herb. 11: 551. 1906. TYPE: WASHINGTON: Walla Walla Co.: Boller, 18 Sep 1893, Piper s.n. (holotype: US; isotype: NY).
Xanthium orientale Xanthium orientale Linnaeus, Sp. Pl., ed. 2. 1400. 1763. TYPE: Without data (lectotype: LINN 1113.2). Lectotypified by Jeanmonod, in Gamisans & Jeanmonod, Compl. Prodr. Fl. Corse, Asteraceae 1: 190. 1998. EPITYPE: FRANCE: Perigord: Right bank of the Dordogne near Bezenac, 14 Sep 1997, Wisskirchen 230 (epitype: BM). Epitypified by Wisskirchen, in C. E. Jarvis & Turland, Taxon 47: 369. 1998.
Xanthium orientale subsp. californicum Xanthium orientale Linnaeus, subsp. californicum (Greene) Greuter, Willdenowia 33: 249. 2003.BASIONYM: Xanthium californicum Greene 1899. 
Xanthium orientale subsp. italicum Xanthium orientale Linnaeus, subsp. italicum (Moretti) Greuter, Willdenowia 33: 249. 2003.BASIONYM: Xanthium italicum Moretti 1822. 
Xanthium orientale subsp. riparium Xanthium orientale Linnaeus, subsp. riparium (Celakovsky) Greuter, Willdenowia 33: 249. 2003.BASIONYM: Xanthium italicum Moretti, subsp. riparium Celakovsky 1871; Xanthium riparium Lasch 1856, non Itzingsohn & Hertsch 1854. 
Xanthium orientale var. macrocarpum Xanthium orientale Linnaeus, var. macrocarpum Reiche, Anales Univ. Chile 112: 132. 1903, nom. inadmiss.BASIONYM: Xanthium macrocarpum de Candolle 1815, nom. illegit.; Xanthium orientale Linnaeus 1763. 
Xanthium oviforme Xanthium oviforme Wallroth, Beitr. Bot. 228, 240. 1844.  
Xanthium palustre Xanthium palustre Greene, Pittonia 4: 63. 1899. TYPE: CALIFORNIA: Solano Co.: Suisun Marshes,
Xanthium pensylvanicum var. eglandulosum Xanthium pensylvanicum Wallroth, var. eglandulosum Wallroth, Beitr. Bot. 236. 1844. TYPE: PENNSYLVANIA:
Xanthium riparium Xanthium riparium Itzingsohn & Hertsch, Bot. Zeitung (Berlin) 12: 34. 1854.  
Xanthium riparium Xanthium riparium Lasch, Bot. Zeitung (Berlin) 14: 412. 1856, non Itzingsohn & Hertsch 1854.  
Xanthium riparium var. albinum Xanthium riparium Itzingsohn & Hertsch, var. albinum Widder,  
Xanthium ripicola Xanthium ripicola Holub, Folia Geobot. Phytotax. 11: 83. 1976.BASIONYM: Xanthium riparium Lasch 1854, non Itzingsohn & Hertsch 1854. 
Xanthium saccharatum Xanthium saccharatum Wallroth, Beitr. Bot. 228, 238. 1844, nom. illegit.BASIONYM: Xanthium maculatum Rafinesque 1818. 
Xanthium saccharatum subsp. commune Xanthium saccharatum Wallroth, subsp. commune (Britton) Widder, Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 21: 286. 1925.BASIONYM: Xanthium commune Britton 1901. 
Xanthium saccharatum subsp. eusaccharatum Xanthium saccharatum Wallroth, subsp. eusaccharatum Widder, Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 21: 285. 1925, nom. inadmiss.BASIONYM: Xanthium saccharatum Wallroth 1844, nom. illegit.; Xanthium maculatum Rafinesque 1818. 
Xanthium saccharatum subsp. italicum Xanthium saccharatum Wallroth, subsp. italicum (Moretti) Hayek, Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. Beih. 30(2): 613. 1931.BASIONYM: Xanthium italicum Moretti 1822. 
Xanthium saccharatum var. silphiifolium Xanthium saccharatum Wallroth, var. silphiifolium (Greene) Widder, Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. Beih. 20: 93. 1923.BASIONYM: Xanthium silphiifolium Greene 1899. 
Xanthium saccharatum var. speciosum Xanthium saccharatum Wallroth, var. speciosum (Kearney) Widder, Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. Beih. 20: 93. 1923.BASIONYM: Xanthium speciosum Kearney 1897. 
Xanthium saccharatum var. wootonii Xanthium saccharatum Wallroth, var. wootonii (Cockerell) Widder, Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. Beih. 20: 93. 1923.BASIONYM: Xanthium commune Britton, var. wootonii Cockerell 1903. 
Xanthium sibiricum Xanthium sibiricum Patrin ex Widder, Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. Beih. 20: 32, pl. 1(6-8). 1923. TYPE: RUSSIA:
Xanthium silphiifolium Xanthium silphiifolium Greene, Pittonia 4: 60. 1899. TYPE: WASHINGTON: Klickitat Co.: Columbia River, Sep 1883, Suksdorf s.n. (holotype: US).
Xanthium speciosum Xanthium speciosum Kearney, Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 24: 574. 1897. TYPE: TENNESSEE: Cocke Co.: Along the French Broad River between Paint Rock and Del Rio, 16 Sep 1897, Kearney 785 (holotype: NY).
Xanthium strumarium subsp. brasilicum Xanthium strumarium Linnaeus, subsp. brasilicum (Vellozo) Bolos & Vigo, Collect. Bot. (Barcelona) 17: 90. 1988.BASIONYM: Xanthium brasilicum Vellozo 1831. 
Xanthium strumarium subsp. cavanillesii Xanthium strumarium Linnaeus, subsp. cavanillesii (Schouw) D. Löve & Dansereau, Canad. J. Bot. 37: 205. 1959.BASIONYM: Xanthium cavanillesii Schouw 1849. 
Xanthium strumarium subsp. italicum Xanthium strumarium Linnaeus, subsp. italicum (Moretti) D. Löve, in Heywood, Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 71: 271. 1976.BASIONYM: Xanthium italicum Moretti 1822. 
Xanthium strumarium subsp. sibiricum Xanthium strumarium Linnaeus, subsp. sibiricum (Patrin ex Widder) Greuter, Willdenowia 33: 249. 2003.BASIONYM: Xanthium sibiricum Patrin ex Widder 1923. 
Xanthium strumarium var. brasilicum Xanthium strumarium Linnaeus, var. brasilicum (Vellozo) Baker, in Martius, Fl. Bras. 6(3): 147. 1884.BASIONYM: Xanthium brasilicum Vellozo 1831. 
Xanthium strumarium var. echinatum Xanthium strumarium Linnaeus, var. echinatum (Murray) A. Gray, Manual, ed. 2. 213. 1856.BASIONYM: Xanthium echinatum Murray 1784. 
Xanthium strumarium var. japonicum Xanthium strumarium Linnaeus, var. japonicum (Widder) H. Hara, Enum. Sperm. Jap. 2: 279. 1952.BASIONYM: Xanthium japonicum Widder 1923. 
Xanthium varians Xanthium varians Greene, Pittonia 4: 59. 1899. TYPE: WASHINGTON: Klickitat Co.: Columbia River, Oct 1893, Suksdorf 1583 (holotype: ?).
Xanthium wootonii Xanthium wootonii (Cockerell) Cockerell, in de Vries, Species and Varieties 140. 1905; Science, ser. 2. 42: 870. 1915.BASIONYM: Xanthium commune Britton, var. wootonii Cockerell 1903.